Risk Analysis

Best/Worst Analysis Formula

This B/WA formula is developed by #drbencarson, the African-American neurosurgeon, expert in operating conjoined twins.

It’s used in decision-making process. It’s also used to minimize #risk. It’s #riskmanagement principle.

According to him, it’s been the template for him in decision making and handling of risk. They are in form of questions.

*What is the best thing that can happen if I do this?

*What is the worst thing that can happen if I do this?
*What is the best thing that can happen if I don’t do this?
*What is the worst thing that can happen if I don’t do this?

I have analyzed it. It’s reliable, measurable,adaptable and empirical.

Six other basic strategies are also adapted to the questions for clearer decision.

Who- persons the decision/ risk affect
What- the risk or decision to take
Where-location of the decision/risk
When-time of the decision/risk
How- strategies or ways or patterns or forms of the decision/risk
Why- reasons behind the decision/risk.

You may try adapting it in your critical decision making periods.





School Management

What Every School Administrator Needs to Know.

• Principal’s work is mainly administrative work in school.
He or she is like the executive president of a country. What gets to his table are files of every department in the school for final decisions or approval where applicable.

• At least, there should be two vice principals: academic and administrative.
The vice principals need to be well trained to prevent clashes of duties, unhealthy rivalries, superiority mindset and omission of duties.

• Create a good smooth relationships with the vice principals. Why? Every vice principal sees him/herself as potential principal. And if care is not taken, they can apply Macbeth theory. Trust on both sides is paramount.

• Grapevines are good sources of information in an organization. However, unverified grapevine leads to unwholesome decision that can backfire.

• Communication is the oil in the engine of the school. Information should be well disseminated to prevent misunderstandings and misrepresentation. Weekly, staff should be reminded of the vision and mission of the school. Not only that, communication of weekly activities should not be left in the hand of weightless staff.

• Leadership is everything. There is different between charismatic leadership and positional leadership. But positional leadership can metamorphosise into charismatic leadership. Leadership is a skill. It can be developed. A school principal is a leader of the school. Both blames and accolades belong to the leader.

• School principals should know how to delegate duties to those who will do it with little or without supervision. Once the assignment is duly specified, the person in charge should be allowed to do the work. He or she can make mistakes. But he/she would have learnt some lessons.

• Diplomacy is good. Humanity is excellent. Diplomacy doesn’t stand test of time. Humanity does. Relationship with every member of staff should be according to their giftedness with human face. Manipulation can not win people’s hearts. It will harden it.

• A school principal should know how to harvest talents from different staff and students. Discover their strengths and minimize their weaknesses with assignment that brings out their gifts.

• Beware of sycophants. Many develop relationships with leaders because of their selfish interests, and not to make any meaningful contributions to the school.

Schools vs students

School teaches kids a lot of bad habits they need to unlearn when they leave.

Five things you can do to deschool your kid:

  1. Learn for pleasure.

Go to museums just for fun. Indulge your kid’s natural curiosity, whatever they’re interested in, and help reawaken it.

  1. Encourage disagreement

School teaches kids there’s one right answer, but the greatest rewards in life come from thinking something new.

Encourage your kids to come up with their own ideas and solutions.

Teach them how to test and defend them. Help them develop free thought.

  1. Give your kid space to take ownership.

Traditional school teaches kids how to be passive, but the real world rewards being active.

Let your kid choose what they want to learn about. Rocket building? Railroad history? Rabbitry? Let their interest be king.

  1. Show your kids a goals-first approach to learning.

School comes out of context and top-down, but the real world rewards being mission-driven.

Ask your kid what they’re excited to accomplish.

Help them find their passion and purpose, and build their education around that.

  1. Challenge the rules.

Rule following is a huge part of school. “It’s just how we do it.”

The antidote? Get comfortable breaking them.

Your kid wants to learn about chemistry first, then pick up the necessary math when they run into a question they can’t answer?

@rebeleducator, Twitter.

Classical Conditioning

Associative Learning
Associative or reflexive learning is another term for classical conditioning. The theory was is mostly associated with Ivan Pavlov, a Nobel Prize winning Russian physiologist. Pavlov wasn’t working on learning theory. He was working with dogs on a series of digestion experiments. From that he noticed a peculiar behavior of the dogs -salivation.

The dogs salivated on sighting food. They even salivated to sounds and appearances of their feeders. From the actions of the dogs, he developed classical conditioning principles:

The essence of classical conditioning is the association of a neutral stimulus with a previously conditioned or neutrally conditioned stimulus and response (Doolittle, 2001).

Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
It refers to the unlearned stimulus that dogs respond to.

Unconditioned Response (UCR)
The unlearned, reflexive response that is elicited by an unconditioned stimulus.

Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
A formerly neutral stimulus that acquires the capacity to elicit a reflexive response.

Conditioned Response (CR)
The learned, reflexive response to a conditioned response.

The Derivation from Associative Learning
• Stimulus Generalization
The occurrence of a learned response not only to the original stimulus, but to other similar stimuli.

• Stimulus Discrimination
The occurrence of a learned response to a specific stimulus, but not to other similar stimuli.

• Extinction
The gradual weakening and disappearance of conditioned behavior. In classical conditioning, extinction occurs when the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus.

• Spontaneous Recovery
The reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response after a period of time without exposure to the conditioned stimulus.

Pedagogical Lessons from Associative Learning
Classical conditioning can help the teachers in an effort to modify student behavior and increase desirable actions.

  1. Students should be active, behavioral participants in learning situations.
  2. Students practice of learning tasks is essential (participative learning).
  3. Teachers should be consistent. Consistency is the most important variable in associative learning.
  4. Teachers should assist students in being successful (in the learning process).
  5. The classroom should be a safe (I.e, non-judgemental, risk-taking) environment.
  6. Students should practice anxiety-producing activities (e.g., presentations, public speaking etc.).
  7. Instructors need to pay attention to what events are being paired with what learning tasks in their classrooms.

Sources: Dennis,2004, Doolittle, 2001.
Paul-Ad Educational Psychology Consulting.

Alternative to Punishment

Changing the Behavior of Others: Alternative to Punishment

All over the world, the use of corporal punishment in school as a medium of correction has been outlawed. Teachers should be abreast of the alternative strategies to punishment to prevent abuse.

Punishment, instead of achieving correction of undesirable behaviors, it breeds anxieties, fear, resentment, anger, hatred, offenses between the enforcer of law and the victims (students).

Research has shown that punishment can not stamp out the undesirable behaviors.

The approaches of alternative to punishment is developed from the B. F. Skinner theory of Positive and Negative Reinforcement. It can work for both prevention and treatment of the problem behavior.

Four approaches are discussed.

1. Reinforce an alternative or incompatible behaviors. Rather than focusing on the undesirable behaviors, a problem behavior can be reduced if the alternative expected behaviors are reinforce. The alternative behavior must be constructive and incompatible with the problem behavior. Consistency in the reinforcement is required.

2. Stop reinforcing the undesirable behavior. Don’t pay attention to it. It will go into extinct if the reinforcer of the problem behavior is carefully and objectively identified and not reinforced.

3. Reinforce the non occurrences of the problem behavior. Identify the time, situation and environment such behavior happens. Don’t allow such time, situations and environment to exist.

4. Remove the opportunity to obtain positive reinforcement. Remove the child from reinforcer i.e. isolate such a child.

Positively reinforce the behaviors that you want to increase.

Note: Each of the strategies can be used alone or in combination.

However, the reinforcer must be:

Be strong

Be immediate

Be frequent

Be of variety.

Source: In focus from Dennis Coon text book on Psychology.

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